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MOVEMENT DISORDERS

(selected topics)

Movement disorders are neurological conditions that affect the speed, fluency, quality, and ease of movement. Abnormal fluency or speed of movement (dyskinesia) may involve excessive or involuntary movement (hyperkinesia) or slowed or absent voluntary movement (hypokinesia).

Movement disorders include the following conditions:

  • Ataxia (lack of coordination, often producing jerky movements)
  • Dystonia (causes involuntary movement and prolonged muscle contraction)
  • Huntington's disease (also called chronic progressive chorea)
  • Multiple system atrophies (e.g., Shy-Drager syndrome)
  • Myoclonus (rapid, brief, irregular movement)
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Progressive supranuclear palsy (rare disorder that affects purposeful movement)
  • Restless leg syndrome (RSD) and periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD)
  • Tics (involuntary muscle contractions)
  • Tourette's syndrome
  • Tremor (e.g., essential tremor, resting tremor)
  • Wilson disease (inherited disorder that causes neurological and psychiatric symptoms and liver disease)

Common dystonias include spasmodic torticollis, which affects muscles of the head, face, and neck, and blepharospasm, which causes involuntary closing of the eyelids.

Tourette's syndrome is an inherited disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics (repeated muscle contractions). Symptoms of Tourette's usually develop during childhood or early adolescence. Patients with the disorder often develop behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, inattention, impulsivity, obsessions, and compulsions. In most cases, symptoms vary in frequency and in severity.

Tics are involuntary muscle contractions that interrupt normal activities. They often are preceded by a strong sensation or urge that is temporarily relieved following the muscle contraction. Examples of common tics include the following:

  • Blinking
  • Clearing the throat
  • Facial twitching
  • Grunting
  • Shrugging the shoulders
  • Sighing

Causes and Risk Factors

Movement disorders occur as a result of damage or disease in a region located at the base of the brain (basal ganglia). The basal ganglia is comprised of clusters of nerve cells (neurons) that send and receive electrical signals and are responsible for involuntary movement. Movement disorders can result from the following:

  • Age-related changes
  • Environmental toxins
  • Genetic disorders (e.g., Huntington's disease, Wilson disease)
  • Medications (e.g., antipsychotic drugs)
  • Metabolic disorders (e.g., hyperthyroidism)
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Stroke

 

Movement Disorders- Symptoms/Signs/Treatment

 

Movement Disorders/ Stroke/ Sleep Disorders/ Multiple Sclerosis

HeadacheMemory/ Restless Legs/ PeriodicLeg Movements of Sleep

 

ConsultantsInNeurology.com

Dr. Raymond Rybicki




The materials provided at this site are for informational purposes and are not intended for use as diagnosis or treatment of a health problem or as substitute for consulting a licensed medical professional. Check with a physician if you suspect you are ill, or believe you may have one of the problems discussed on our website, as many problems and diseases may be serious and even life-threatening. Also note while we frequently update our website's content, medical information changes rapidly.
 
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